First generation screenwriter and director Zhu Shouju 朱瘦菊 had established a solid literary reputation before turning to film, authoring three best-selling novels under his pen name, "The Ocean Dreamweaver". In 1920 he worked with artist-turned-filmmaker Dan Duyu and veteran stage director/actor Guan Haifeng to found the Shanghai Film Company. then the Baihe studio. In 1924, Zhu became editor-in-chief of "Movie Magazine" (电影杂志), as well as writing the script for two films that year, "The Abandoned Wife" and "Tea-picking Girl". He made his directing debut for Baihe in 1925 with "Old Love", and in that same year negotiated the merger with Da Zhonghua, becoming the head of the resulting new studio. In his film career, Zhu wrote and/or directed 24 feature films, the last in 1948.